Nursing Diagnosis and Nursing Interventions

Nursing Diagnosis and Nursing Intervention for Gastroenteritis

Gastroenteritis is a medical condition from inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract that involves both the stomach and the small intestine. It causes some combination of diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain and cramping.

Viruses (particularly rotavirus) and the bacteria Escherichia coli and Campylobacter species are the primary causes of gastroenteritis. There are, however, many other infectious agents that can cause this syndrome. Non-infectious causes are seen on occasion, but they are less likely than a viral or bacterial cause. Risk of infection is higher in children due to their lack of immunity and relatively poor hygiene.

Gastroenteritis typically involves both diarrhea and vomiting, or less commonly, presents with only one or the other. Abdominal cramping may also be present. Signs and symptoms usually begin 12–72 hours after contracting the infectious agent. If due to a viral agent, the condition usually resolves within one week. Some viral causes may also be associated with fever, fatigue, headache, and muscle pain. If the stool is bloody, the cause is less likely to be viral and more likely to be bacterial.[7] Some bacterial infections may be associated with severe abdominal pain and may persist for several weeks.

Nursing Diagnosis and Nursing Intervention for Gastroenteritis

1. Deficient Fluid Volume

Related to
  • excessive loss through feces
  • vomiting and restricted intake
  • nausea
Fluid requirements will be met with the criteria there are no signs of dehydration

Nursing Intervention for Gastroenteritis
  1. Give oral fluids and parenteral rehydration in accordance with the program
    R /: As an attempt rehydration to replace fluids that come out with feces.
  2. Monitor intake and output.
    R /: Provides information to determine the status of fluid balance fluid needs replacement.
  3. Assess vital signs, signs / symptoms of dehydration and the results of laboratory examination.
    R /: Assessing hydration status, electrolyte and acid base balance.
  4. Collaborative implementation of definitive therapy
    R /: Provision of drugs is causally important after the cause of diarrhea in mind.

2. Acute Pain

Related to
  • hyperperistaltic
  • perirectal fissures irritation
Goal :
Pain is reduced by the criteria there are no blisters on the perirectal

Nursing Intervention for Gastroenteritis
  1. Set a comfortable position for a client, for example with knee flexion.
    R /: Lowering the surface tension and reduce abdominal pain.
  2. Perform the transfer of activity to provide comfort such as back massage and warm compresses abdomen.
    R /: Increase relaxation, shifting the focus of attention of clients and improve coping abilities.
  3. Clean the rectal area with mild soap and water after defecation and provide skin care
    R /: Protect skin from the acidity of the feces, preventing irritation.
  4. Collaboration drug or analgesic and anticholinergic as indicated
    R /: Analgesic as anticholinergic agents for anti-pain and spasm of the lower GI tract can be given according to clinical indication.
  5. Assess complaints of pain by Visual Analog Scale (scale 1-5), changes in the characteristics of pain, verbal and non verbal clues
    R /: Evaluating the development of pain to determine the next intervention.

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