Headache is a non-specific symptom, which means that it has many possible causes, including fatigue and sleep deprivation, stress, the effects of medications and recreational drugs, viral infections and common colds, head injury, rapid ingestion of a very cold food or beverage, dental or sinus issues, and many more.
Nursing Diagnosis and Nursing Interventions for Cephalalgia
Acute pain related to stess and tension, irritation of nerve pressure, vasospasm, increased intracranial pressure.
Nursing Intervention :
- Make sure the duration / episode of the problem, who has been consulted, and what drug or therapy has been used.
- Thorough pain, note its intensity (on a scale 0-10), characteristics (eg heavy, throbbing, constant) location, duration, factors that aggravate or relieve.
- Note the distinct possibility of pathophysiology, such as brain / meningeal / sinus infection, cervical trauma, hypertension or trauma.
- Observation of nonverbal signs of pain, are like: facial expression, posture, restlessness, crying / grimacing, withdrawal, diaphoresis, changes in the frequency of cardiac / respiratory, blood pressure.
- Assess the relationship between physical / emotional state of a person.
- Evaluation of pain behavior.
- Note the influence of pain such as: loss of interest in life, decreased activity, weight loss.
- Assess the degree of taking a false step in person from the patient, such as isolating themselves.
- Determine the issue of the second party to the patient / person nearby, such as insurance, spouse / family
- Discuss the physiological dynamics of tension / anxiety with the patient / person nearest
- Instruct patient to report pain immediately if the pain arises.
- Place on a rather dark room according to the indication.
- Suggest to rest in a quiet room.
- Give a cold compress on the head.
- Give a moist hot compress / dry on the head, neck, arms as needed.
- Massage the head / neck / arm if the patient can tolerate touch.
- Use techniques of therapeutic touch, visualization, biofeedback, self hypnotics, and stress reduction and other relaxation techniques.
- Instruct the patient to use a positive statement "I am cured, I'm relaxing, I love this life." Advise patient to realize the internal-external dialogue and say "stop" or "delayed" if it appears that negative thoughts.
- Observation of nausea / vomiting. Give ice, drinks containing carbonate as indicated.